During your time on Cyber Wise you will come across a lot of IT and Cyber security terms that you may have never heard of. We have made a Glossary to help you understand the commonly used terms to further help your knowledge. If you have any further questions please feel free to use our Contact Form.
Code that is often installed by malware that inserts itself into programs or operating systems to provide unauthorized access to data.
A program used for specific functions such as; keeping ports open or launching a flood of packets during a DDoS attack.
A set of Bots installed onto a computer for use of creating DDoS attacks and sending SPAM.
Abbreviation of criminal hacking.
Modifying data for your own expense i.e. changing grades, credit rates etc.
When an unauthorized transmission is allowing data to leave the system. This can be using a removal disk, printout, photographs of the screen etc.
Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack
An attempt to make a machine or network resource unavailable. Usually involves spoofing packets or email headers.
Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack
A type of DoS attack where multiple compromised systems, for example a Botnet, are used to target a single system causing a DoS attack.
DNS (Domain NameSystem
A system for naming individual computers and network services that is organized into a hierarchy of domains. It is commonly used by the internet to locate computers through friendly names.
Undocumented, unauthorized program functions in a production program.
A method for exploiting a vulnerability to take control of a system or compromise it.
Gaining unauthorized access to data in a system or computer.
Politcally or ideologically-motivated vandalism e.g. defacing a website with reason.
Creating a false identity with someone else’s identity information like; name, national insurance number etc.
Pretending to be someone or something you are not.
The time between the stimulation and the response. The period where a logic bomb, virus or worm refrains damage (delivering the payload). Long latency can result in severe consequences for infected systems.
A form of virus. A program in which damage (the payload) is delivered when a particular condition occurs.
Sending large numbers of unwanted emails to a single recipient or to a group of recipients, this is not SPAM it is a form of DoS.
Abbreviation of Malicious software, categorizes dangerous software like; Ransomware, Trojan horses, viruses, worms, rootkits etc.
In a DDoS attack, a program that communicates with implanted zombie programs on compromised computers. The master program usually transmits instructions to zombies with details of the targeted system.
The activities that malware perform on an infected computer.
Unauthorized access to restricted systems.
Getting access to secure locations by following an authorized person through the grid.
Using forged emails or websites that imitate an official communication or page to trick people into revealing logon credentials or other private information. Often used for piggybacking, identity-theft or fraud.
A script used to gain unauthorized root privileges on compromised systems.
Deliberate damage to to operations or equipment.
Technique of accumulating round-off errors and saving them up for a later withdrawal.
Using discarded listings, tapes or other storage media to find useful information like access codes, credentials and any other sensitive data.
Any simple program.
A malicious program that waits for a specific time before activating its payloads. Time bomb is a form of logic bomb found in Trojan horses.
In reference to the Greek myth, a Trojan Horse is an innocent looking program that can alter data, record passwords, send confidential data, open back doors and much more.
Destruction or malicious modification without authorization.
A piece of code that is capable of duplicating itself and can cause payloads like corrupting systems and destroying data.
A weakness or flaw in a computer system, network or program that allows attacks from malware.
Using unauthorized equipment or software to eavesdrop on data or voice transmissions e.g. installing Keystrokes onto a computer to find what a person is typing.
Like a virus, however spreads through computer systems and networks duplicating itself without integrating itself into other executable code.
A program that waits in victims computers for instructions, commonly used to cause DDoS attacks.
“Every case involving cybercrime that I’ve been involved in, I’ve never found a master criminal sitting somewhere in Russia or Hong Kong or Beijing. It always ends up that somebody at the company did something they weren’t supposed to do. They read an email, went to a website they weren’t supposed to.” – Frank Abagnale, FBI